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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 263-268

Ocular morbidity due to the usage of handheld digital devices: A population-based cross-sectional study using a validated questionnaire


Department of Ophthalmology, Thrikkakara Municipal Co-operative Hospital, Ernakulam, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. M Manju
Department of Ophthalmology, Thrikkakara Municipal Co-operative Hospital, Seaport Airport Road, Near Collectorate Kakkanad (PO), Ernakulam - 682 030, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/kjo.kjo_211_20

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Purpose: To study the ocular morbidity exclusively due to the usage of handheld digital devices (HHDD). Materials and Methods: It is a population-based cross-sectional study using survey method. A questionnaire was prepared, and face validity was established. Pilot study with 25 participants was used to validate the questionnaire. Data were collected from 534 participants and data of 207 participants were excluded from the analysis based on the exclusion criteria. Thus, data of 327 participants were considered for the analysis purpose. Data set was divided into two depending on whether the participant used HHDD for 2 h on a day or more. Then these two groups were compared regarding the ocular morbidities. Data were analyzed using SPSS 26.0 version. Results: Out of 327 participants, 181 participants (55.4%) were males and 146 participants (44.6%) were female. Eye strain (P = 0.0252), Neck pain (P = 0.0006) and Watering of eyes (P = 0.0069) had statistically significant association with the usage of HHDD. Participants who use HHDD for more than 2 h/day were at 1.95 times of higher risk and participants with continuous usage of HHDD for >2 h/day were at 1.86 times higher risk of getting ocular morbidities than others. In HHDD users asthenopic symptoms were more compared to ocular surface-related problems. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the long and continuous usage of HHDD has a significant association with ocular morbidity. Further studies are needed to analyze and ascertain whether the existing treatment algorithm and ocular ergonomics for computer users are enough for individual or combined usage of HHDD.


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