|LETTER TO THE EDITOR
|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 386-387
Prevalence and risk factors for primary glaucoma in Kerala – The need for information
AV Asha1, TU Laly2, Liji Menon3, MG Greeshma4, K Samyuktha Sadasivan2, AR Arya5, Risha Raveendran1, Naveena6
1 Department of Ophthalmology, GMC, Kannur, Kerala, India
2 Department of Ophthalmology, GMC, Thrissur, Kerala, India
3 Department of Ophthalmology, MOSC Medical College, Kolenchery, Kerala, India
4 Department of Ophthalmology, GMC, Idukki, Kerala, India
5 Department of Ophthalmology, RIO, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
6 Department of Ophthalmology, GMC, Alappuzha, Kerala, India
|Date of Submission||03-Jun-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||07-Jun-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||08-Dec-2021|
A V Asha
Professor of Ophthalmology, GMC, Kannur, Kerala
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Asha A V, Laly T U, Menon L, Greeshma M G, Sadasivan K S, Arya A R, Raveendran R, Naveena. Prevalence and risk factors for primary glaucoma in Kerala – The need for information. Kerala J Ophthalmol 2021;33:386-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Asha A V, Laly T U, Menon L, Greeshma M G, Sadasivan K S, Arya A R, Raveendran R, Naveena. Prevalence and risk factors for primary glaucoma in Kerala – The need for information. Kerala J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 19];33:386-7. Available from: http://www.kjophthal.com/text.asp?2021/33/3/386/331917
We wish to highlight the lack of population or hospital-based information on the prevalence and risk factors for glaucoma from Kerala. Glaucoma is reported in an estimated 11.2 million persons aged 40 years or older in India. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is more common with an estimated 6.48 million persons and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is reported in an estimated 2.54 million persons. An estimated 27.6 million persons may have any form of primary angle-closure disease. Population-based studies from South India have reported varying prevalence rates for glaucoma that vary from 0.4% to 4% for POAG and 0.5% for angle-closure glaucoma with a reported urban rural difference in the prevalence.,,,, Increasing age and increased intraocular pressures are reported as risk factors for POAG, and increased age, female gender, short axial length, thicker cornea with steep corneal curvature, and thicker lens with anterior lens position were found to be significant risk factors for PACG.,,
Glaucoma can lead to irreversible blindness and an estimated 1.5 million people are blind from glaucoma in India. It is estimated that over 75% of the people with glaucoma are undiagnosed in low- and middle-income countries including India. Knowledge of the estimates of the magnitude, risk factors, consequences of glaucoma, and prevalence of undiagnosed glaucoma are important to develop appropriate screening and diagnostic strategies. Population-based estimates from the other South Indian states may be considered as a surrogate for the magnitude of glaucoma in Kerala but may be unreliable when we consider the large variation in the prevalence measures among those studies. In addition, all the major prevalence studies on glaucoma from Southern India are more than a decade old and we cannot be sure if those estimates are applicable now. Glaucoma is a disease that is more common in the elderly and the prevalence or proportion of glaucoma may have increased as the population demographics have changed toward aging in Kerala.
It is important that Kerala has a state-level strategy to address this important cause of irreversible blindness. These must include standardized strategies for screening, diagnosis, and strategies to improve the reach and outcomes of therapeutic interventions. Accurate baseline estimates of the prevalence and incidence, risk factors, and prognostic factors for glaucoma are essential to understand the effectiveness of interventions at a population level.
The Kerala Society of Ophthalmic Surgeons must consider the feasibility of multicentric studies across several regions and diverse health care settings of Kerala to address the lack of information on glaucoma from Kerala.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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