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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 37-41

Factors associated with poor prognosis in corneal ulcer: A clinical and epidemiological study

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
2 Department of Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mini Mathew
Department of Ophthalmology, Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/kjo.kjo_97_21

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Aim: To explore the factors associated with culture positivity and worsening of corneal ulcers in patients presenting to a tertiary care teaching hospital in south Kerala. Methods: We did a retrospective review of hospital-based case records from June 2018 to May 2019 and included all cases of infective corneal ulcer admitted during the period of study with corneal stromal infiltrate on slit-lamp examination. Results of gram stain, potassium hydroxide stain, and culture result were noted. The treatment history (moxifloxacin (0. 3%) or fortified cephalosporin and gentamicin or natamycin) was recorded. The data were exported to the statistical software SPSS V27.0 for further analysis. Results: The data of 125 culture-positive and 250 culture-negative ulcers were studied. Most patients were aged >55 years (n = 201, 53.6%) and 35–55 years (n = 120, 32.0%). The association of culture negativity with nontraumatic risk factors was significant (P = 0.01) but not with the size of the ulcer, progress score, or worsening clinical status of the ulcer. More persons with pretreatment (15.2%) showed worsening of the clinical status compared to those who did not (6.3%) (P = 0.005). 63% of the culture-positive cases had not taken any pretreatment. Compared to noncentral ulcers there was a marked deterioration of central ulcers (16.7%) (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Pretreatment and centrally located ulcers were significantly associated with a worsening clinical condition in this study. Culture-positive corneal ulcers showed a tendency toward improvement, but we could not find an association between the detection of the organism and its favorable response to treatment.

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