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 Table of Contents  
EDITORIAL
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 89-91

Ophthalmic simulation: The need of the times


Smita Narayanan, Professor, Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Date of Submission06-May-2022
Date of Decision10-May-2022
Date of Acceptance15-May-2022
Date of Web Publication30-Aug-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Smita Narayanan
Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 035, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/kjo.kjo_62_22

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How to cite this article:
Narayanan S. Ophthalmic simulation: The need of the times. Kerala J Ophthalmol 2022;34:89-91

How to cite this URL:
Narayanan S. Ophthalmic simulation: The need of the times. Kerala J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Sep 27];34:89-91. Available from: http://www.kjophthal.com/text.asp?2022/34/2/89/355039



The coronavirus disease (COVID) pandemic was a hugely disruptive event to medical training. The postgraduate workforce was the backbone of the fight against COVID, at least in India. Thus, whatever training was available to the residents stopped. This brought the need for medical training programs to consider simulation as an alternative method to develop procedural skills into focus. Aviation, police, and the military have been using simulation for a long time.[1] Closer home, simulation training in orthopedics, nursing, anesthesiology, and medical education is widespread and gaining ground.[2] Ophthalmology can benefit from simulation training experiences in these fields.

The important thing in simulations is creativity. Dr. Virender Singh Sangwan, Director of Innovations at Dr. Shroff 's Charity Eye Hospital, India, feels that we lay too much emphasis on theory i.e learning science behind surgery instead of the surgical skills, which are mutually exclusive events. Surgical skills are like any motor skills, which have to be improved with practice. The theoretical background is important to be a good doctor but not very important to be a skilled surgeon. He feels that we have the best inputs as medical graduates and yet we churn out average or below average surgeons. This can only be the problem with the system of training.[3]

Only a very small percentage of Indian medical colleges, i.e., nearly 20% advise students to watch, assist, and do wet lab surgeries. Most of the medical schools in India do not have access or will to implement assisted surgeries, perform objective assessments, and provide certification. A dedicated operating room for training is available only in a few centers.

Dr. Sangwan has also suggested a few pointers to train future surgeons. These include assessment of surgical temperament by the online tool (s) in the medical school itself. To those inclined to be surgeons, online virtual reality/artificial intelligence (VR/AI)-based skill-building training and gamification of surgical training are offered.[4] The skills in the mind can be developed much before a structured curriculum is brought out. Mental training, like those given to sportsmen by coaching and visualization, is also advocated. The training includes a wet lab for surgical training in medical school, surgery-based short fellowships, sandwich fellowships with extensive use of technology, simulation, online tools, and surgical YouTube.


  Aviation and Simulation Top


What does aviation have to teach us about delivering high-quality simulation training? Here qualitative and quantitative data are collected to determine the best course direction for the pilots. They provide scenario-based training, resilience to provide the correct response to startling or surprising situations, development of cognitive reasoning, and the use of training tools from simple to sophisticated.[5] Even practicing pilots use simulation training to update their skills.

Simulation allows for accelerated learning, especially by repetitious skill building which improves the learning curve so that operations on real patients become safer. It helps in refreshing existing skills and the management of complex scenarios or new techniques or management of rare complications and adverse events. This is done in a risk-free environment thereby improving patient safety.[6] This is because simulation uses a controlled environment for training.


  What is Wrong with the Current Training Methods Top


There is a huge need for trained ophthalmic professionals in the world.[7] The training of the next generation of ophthalmology professionals as local health providers can be done safely, effectively, and efficiently by simulation. Before I talk about simulation, let me highlight some of the problems of current medical training practice.

The curriculum is too long and students and teachers concentrate on one or a maximum of two surgeries. There is also a lack of opportunity to practice regularly, especially in case of uncommon events/procedures and/or complications.[8] Independent studies have reported that 30–50% of the residents in the US and UK cannot operate independently. In India and other developing countries, 70% or more cannot do so.

The current training system involves the perpetuation of the Halsteadian principle of the “see one, do one, teach one” method.[9] Each training session is very stressful for the trainer, trainee, and the others watching. Therefore, the whole environment is high risk and stressful. Since we train on real patients, we must assume the inherent risks. There is also a lack of training in team interaction and crisis management.

Lack of rigorous evaluation, readjustment, and correction of problems by assessing and quantifying skills is also a problem as there is too much subjectivity. Individual likes and dislikes create bias making the training dictatorial at times. Thus, there is limited knowledge of the impact of medical training on patient safety and therefore the number of patients experiencing complications is very high.

Disruptive events happen in medical education. Besides coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there can be man-made and natural disasters, chronic low patient volume, staff shortage, etc. Obviously, the present training model cannot be scaled up. At the same time, it must be remembered that simulation is not a replacement for live surgical education. Prof. R. Kneebone describes simulation as providing an environment meant to take a novice surgeon to a specified level of competence before performing live surgery.[10]


  The Potential of Simulation in Ophthalmic Education Top


Simulation allows for learning skills in basic techniques thereby improving muscle memory. Most of the simulation-based surgical training concentrates on turning out a novice into an advanced beginner and then into a competent surgeon. Gaining proficiency and expertise can happen only in a live surgical environment.

It is not a mere wet lab center. It is a center with skill area, models for learning, feedback, sustained learning, curriculum integration, outcome measurement, simulation fidelity meaning it should feel as close to a real experience as possible, skill acquisition and maintenance, transfer to practice, team training, instructor training, and much more.

For those who are returning to surgical practice after a period of absence, e.g., after maternity leave or injury or illness or to quote again, the global pandemic, it is a boon. It can also be used for practicing the management of rare complications, maintenance of skills, and team training.

The potential for quantitatively tracking one's progress as it is a data-centric program is of immense benefit.

In many institutions, the mean number of cataract surgeries performed by trainee residents in their second and third years is zero. Trainees in the UK have a mean annual trabeculectomy rate of 0.5.[11] It has been found that there is a 40% reduction in posterior capsular rupture (PCR) after a five-day simulation training program.[12]

The evidence from randomized controlled trials in simulation learning showed that motivation and increase in confidence occurred 20 times more and tripled competence in the intervention group as compared to the control group. The GLAucoma Simulated Surgery Trial (GLASS) trial for trabeculectomy skill learning and Ophthalmic Learning and Improvement Initiative in Cataract Surgery (OLIMPICS) for small-incision cataract surgery learning show that simulation makes a real difference. We need to gather more evidence, ensure advocacy, and engage with all stakeholders to disseminate the benefits of simulated learning.[13],[14]

Simulation should be integrated into the clinical training portfolio. Steps of simulation-based surgical education include deconstructing the surgical technique, providing explicit instructions, feedback, sustained deliberate practice, and reflective learning. The outcome assessment is done using microscopes linked to a digital classroom and by recording on iPads and marking against Ophthalmic Surgical Competence Assessment Rubrics (OSSCAR).[15],[16]


  The Orbis Simulation Center Top


One of the pioneers and biggest users of simulation-supported learning is Orbis International's simulation center. Its completely open-source manual serves as a practical implementation guide for training hospitals and teaching institutions, on establishing a simulation center, designing simulation training, and ensuring ongoing management of the program. The manual provides ophthalmic departments with the resources they need to implement high-quality simulation training for ophthalmologists, ophthalmologists-in-training, ophthalmic nurses, and anesthesiologists. They began with upskilling their own team, purchasing mobile wet lab kits, and then building permanent simulation training centers that can be integrated into a residency curriculum at an institutional level.[17]

The virtual reality simulator in the center enables the user to practice multiple times. It is cost-effective and now it is no longer cost-prohibitive with portable off-the-shelf components. A combination of repeated skill-building giving muscle memory and systems that allow tracking of movements improves the learning experience.[18],[19],[20],[21] A skilled teacher is also able to supervise, teach, and enrich the whole process remotely.

They also have the Orbis International Flying Eye Hospital simulation center where training can be provided in basic and advanced cataract surgery, surgical and medical retina, indirect ophthalmoscopy, pediatric strabismus, trauma, minor operations, etc. It also enables to provide training to a greater number of health care professionals.


  Conclusion Top


Simulation training is the way to go for in medical education, especially for surgical specialties like ophthalmology. This alone can ensure a stress-free experience for the trainer and trainee.



 
  References Top

1.
Michael M, Abboudi H, Ker J, Shamim Khan M, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K. Performance of technology-driven simulators for medical students--A systematic review. J Surg Res 2014;192:531-43.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Al-Elq AH. Simulation-based medical teaching and learning. J Family Community Med 2010;17:35-40.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Unlocking the Power of Simulation: A Next-Generation Solution to Training Ophthalmic Professionals. Available from: https://cursos.campuspaao.org/cybersimulation-social/.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Wilson Andrew and O'Connor, Jake and Taylor, Lewis and Carruthers, David (2017) A Case Study into the Use of Virtual Reality and Gamification in Ophthalmology Training. In: Proceedings of the Third Joint International Conference on Serious Games, JCSG 2017. LNCS . Springer, pp. 158-69.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
DeMaria AN. Medicine, aviation, and simulation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;57:1328-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Flanagan JL, De Souza N. Simulation in ophthalmic training. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2018;7:427-35.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Rouhani SA, Israel K, Leandre F, Pierre S, Bollman B, Marsh RH. Addressing the immediate need for emergency providers in resource-limited settings: The model of a six-month emergency medicine curriculum in Haiti. Intl J Emerg Med 2018;11:22. doi: 10.1186/s12245-018-0182-y.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ananthakrishnan N, Arora NK, Chandy G, Gitanjali B, Sood R, Supe A, et al. Is there need for a transformational change to overcome the current problems with postgraduate medical education in India? Natl Med J India 2012;25:101-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Carter BN. The fruition of Halsted's concept of surgical training. Surgery 1952;32:518-27.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Kneebone RL. Simulation reframed. Adv Simul (Lond) 2016;1:27. doi: 10.1186/s41077-016-0028-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Walkden A, Huxtable J, Senior M, Lee H, Naylor S, Turner S, et al. Trabeculectomy training in England: Are we safe at training? Two year surgical outcomes. Eye (Lond) 2018;32:1253-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Swampillai AJ, Nowak VA, Maubon L, Neffendorf JE, Sahota D, Williams O, et al. Confidence of UK ophthalmology registrars in managing posterior capsular rupture: Results from a national trainee survey. Ophthalmol Ther 2022;11:225-37.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Dean WH, Buchan J, Gichuhi S, Philippin H, Arunga S, Mukome A, et al. Simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma versus conventional training alone: The GLAucoma Simulated Surgery (GLASS) trial. A multicentre, multicountry, randomised controlled, investigator-masked educational intervention efficacy trial in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Br J Ophthalmol 2021:bjophthalmol-2020-318049. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-318049.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Nair AG, Ahiwalay C, Bacchav AE, Sheth T, Lansingh VC, Vedula SS, et al. Effectiveness of simulation-based training for manual small incision cataract surgery among novice surgeons: A randomized controlled trial. Sci Rep 2021;11:10945. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-90410-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Kiew SY, Yeo IYS, Golnik KC, Muriel-Herrero MA, Fuertes-Barahona V, Grzybowski A. The ophthalmology surgical competency assessment rubric for intravitreal injections (ICO-OSCAR: IVI). J Clin Med 2021;10:1476. doi: 10.3390/jcm10071476.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Miller GE. The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Acad Med 1990;65 (9 Suppl):S63-7.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Materials adapted from the Orbis International Simulation Center Manual. New York, USA: Project Orbis International, Inc.; 2020.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Iskander M, Ogunsola T, Ramachandran R, McGowan R, Al-Aswad LA. Virtual reality and augmented reality in ophthalmology: A contemporary prospective. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2021;10:244-52.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Chilibeck CM, McGhee CNJ. Virtual reality surgical simulators in ophthalmology: Are we nearly there? Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2020;48:727-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Lin JC, Yu Z, Scott IU, Greenberg PB. Virtual reality training for cataract surgery operating performance in ophthalmology trainees. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021;12:CD014953. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD014953.pub2.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Thomsen ASS. Intraocular surgery-assessment and transfer of skills using a virtual-reality simulator. Acta Ophthalmol 2017;95:1-22. doi: 10.1111/aos. 13505.  Back to cited text no. 21
    




 

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