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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 199-207

Lifestyle modifications – A new dimension in glaucoma management

Department of Ophthalmology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rashmi Kumari
Department of Ophthalmology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/kjo.kjo_56_22

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Glaucoma, a neuro-degenerative disease of the eye, is characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration and a characteristic pattern of visual field loss. Despite a better understanding of the complex pathophysiology of glaucoma in the recent years, reduction of intra-ocular pressure (IOP) remains the primary outcome of different strategies of glaucoma management – medical, laser, or surgical. However, existence of various non-IOP-dependent mechanisms have broadened the targets as well as scope of glaucoma management. Lifestyle modifications have been a supplement in the management of different chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. This option has been explored for glaucoma as well. Existing evidence suggests that some modifications in dietary habits, exercise, yogasanas, sleep postures, and so on have an influence on the underlying pathophysiology of glaucoma development as well as its progression. Increasing interest to investigate the potential of lifestyle modifications in glaucoma as preventive or supportive medicine in glaucoma management forms the basis of several recent research. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence relating the effect of different lifestyles, namely, dietary habits, supplements, exercises on IOP), and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), which ultimately lead to retinal ganglion cell loss and optic neuropathy. Present knowledge indicates the presence of therapeutic potential in various lifestyle modifications over glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Although some findings are conflicting, there is a need for further exploration with well-structured clinical trials.

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